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Women can be Destroyed but Not Defeated: Undefeatable Struggle of Sisters in Toni Morrison’s Paradise
This article discusses the theme of female friendship as a possible way out of alienation (spiritual or physical detachment in a relation) in gender relations, and then goes on to argue that this female friendship itself suffers from alienation in the long run. While foregrounding the healing power of female bonding which may allow women to survive under patriarchal exploitations, this article brings fore a fact that this bonding nevertheless may be corrupted by the power of patriarchy and lead women finally to where they start, namely, alienation. The common experience of the black women urges them to form bonds to satisfy their mother hunger, deal with their problematic past, and fight against the discrimination on the basis of race, class and gender. Female friendship assists women in counterbalancing the effects of patriarchy and gives them a sense of independence. However, Morrison’s 1998 novel Paradise, by portraying alienated relationships, emphasizes the omnipresent power of patriarchy and warns women of the dangers that the female bonding is exposed with. It brings to light Morrison’s concern with African Feminism as she brings fore the issues that women have to deal with in their struggle to gain freedom from discriminatory patriarchal restrictions that create hindrance to women living a life of their own choice.
Muhammad Babar Jamil
Assistant Professor, Department of English, GIFT University, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Akbar Khan
Associate Professor, Department of English, The University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Punjab, Pakistan
Dr. Shabbir Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan
African Feminism, Alienation, Female Friendship, Patriarchy, Struggling Women