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Politics of Ethnic Identities and Conflicts: A Case Study of Hazara and Siraiki Ethno-Nationalist Movements in Pakistan
AbstractSince its inception, Pakistan has been beset by a multitude of traditional and non-traditional threats to its sovereignty and territorial integrity. More specifically, ethno-nationalist movements of various shades continue to threaten the physical cohesion of the country. Pakistan is one of the most ethnically diverse nations in the world. The persistent and pervasive socio-economic underdevelopment of certain ethnic groups drives identity politics and centrifugal tendencies in the country. The centre-province friction has been a major fault line holding the country back from metamorphosing into a vibrant and strong federation underpinned by distributive justice, ethnic harmony and cultural pluralism. Significantly, the tone and tenor of ethnic politics has been changing over time from the search for socioeconomic, political and cultural security to the vociferous demand for carving out new provinces along ethnic lines. By critically analyzing the cases of the Siraiki and Hazara ethno-nationalist movements, this scholarly endeavour seeks to dissect the dynamics and drivers of sub-nationalism (identity politics); the urgency and importance of new provinces; and the best possible solutions to the ethno-nationalist movements. In sum, this piece of the scholarship will go a long way in providing conflict-resolution-oriented policy input to the policymakers for the amicable resolution of the knotty ethic question.
- Azhar Mahmood Abbasi
- Lecturer, Department of Pakistan Studies and History, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan
- Dr. Javed Ali Kalhoro
- Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies and History, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan