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Issues and State of Religious Minorities in Pakistan: A Systematic Literature Review
AbstractThis article presents a systematic review of previous empirical literature regarding the problems faced by religious minorities in Pakistan which is a hub of religious diversity. Using various keywords Google Scholar, JSTOR, Emerald Insight and ProQuest were searched and 31 studies were identified applying inclusion criteria. Studies applying inclusion criteria of publication in peer reviewed journals from period of 2005-2021 were included. Their findings were analyzed and relevant themes for the present study’s purpose were created. Themes included: religious freedom, out – group identity, media, social exclusion, extremism, education, economic deprivation and constitution and laws. The themes identified through the comparison of last fifteen years’ literature discuss problems faced by religious minorities which, inter alia, include forced conversion of women and girls, restricted religious freedom, discrimination in education, limited employment opportunities and identity – based discrimination. Implications for research, policy making and interventions are also presented.
- Ali Raza Shah
- PhD Scholar, Department of Social Sciences, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
- Dr. Bela Nawaz
- Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan